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ADMIN PENALTIES FOR OUTSTANDING CORPORATE INCOME TAX RETURNS

In general, all registered companies must submit corporate income tax (“CIT”) returns within 12 months of the end of the company’s financial year-end. This is applicable to all companies that are resident in South Africa, that receive source income in South Africa, or that maintain a permanent establishment or a branch in South Africa.

On 29 November 2018, the South African Revenue Service (“SARS”) issued a media release confirming that SARS will soon start imposing administrative non-compliance penalties as provided for in Chapter 15 of the Tax Administration Act[1] for outstanding CIT returns. To date, these penalties were only imposed on individuals with outstanding income tax returns.

This announcement follows a media release earlier in November 2018 which stated that SARS is once again embarking on a nationwide awareness campaign to reinforce taxpayers’ obligations to submit outstanding tax returns, specifically targeting companies.

In this regard, the fixed amount penalties in terms of section 211 of the Tax Administration Act range from R250 (where the company is in an assessed loss position) to R16,000 (in instances where the company’s taxable income exceeds R50 million) for each outstanding return. Once the penalty has been imposed, the penalty will increase by the same amount for every month that the non-compliance continues.

In order to determine the amount of the penalty to be imposed, SARS will consider the year of assessment immediately prior to the year of assessment during which the penalty is assessed.

The penalties will furthermore be imposed by way of a penalty assessment. Any unpaid penalties will be recovered by means of the debt recovery steps.

According to the media release, the administrative non-compliance penalties will be imposed for outstanding CIT returns for years of assessment ending during the 2009 and subsequent calendar years. Please note that this will also apply to dormant companies with no receipts or assets.

SARS will, however, issue the relevant company with a final demand which will grant the company 21 business days from the date of the final demand to submit the outstanding returns before the penalties will be imposed.

Companies may request remittance of the penalties imposed from SARS and have the right to lodge an objection via eFiling should the request for remittance be unsuccessful.

The takeaway is that all companies with outstanding CIT returns (whether these companies have assessed losses for those outstanding years or not) should complete and submit these returns as soon as possible in order to avoid the administrative non-compliance penalties being imposed.

[1] No. 28 of 2011

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied upon as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.  Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

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NON-RESIDENT SELLERS OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

Section 35A of the Income Tax Act[1] came into effect on 1 September 2007 and sets out the capital gains tax consequences of the sale of immovable property situated in South Africa in instances where the seller is not a South African tax resident.

In terms of these provisions, the purchaser of the immovable property is obliged to withhold the specified amount of tax from the purchase price payable, provided that the property is disposed of for an amount in excess of R2 million.

The amount to be withheld in these circumstances is 7.5% of the purchase price where the seller is a natural person, 10% of the purchase price where the seller is a company and 15% of the purchase price where the seller is a trust.

The amount of tax withheld in these circumstances must be paid to the South African Revenue Service (“SARS”) within 14 days after the date on which the amount was so withheld in instances where the purchaser is a South African tax resident. The period is extended to 28 days should the purchaser not be a South African tax resident.

The non-resident seller of the immovable property may, however, request a tax directive from SARS confirming that tax be withheld at a lower or even zero rate, depending on the specific circumstances applicable to that non-resident seller. In this regard, SARS will take into account factors such as any security furnished for the payment of any tax due on the disposal of the immovable property, whether the seller is subject to tax in respect of such disposal and whether the actual tax liability of the non-resident seller is less than the amount to be withheld in terms of section 35A.

In order to request such a tax directive, the non-resident seller must complete the relevant form NR03 and submit this to SARS, together with the offer to purchase, the relevant capital gains tax calculation and all other relevant supporting documentation. According to SARS’ website, the processing of this declaration or directive application is 21 working days.

The amount withheld from any payment to the non-resident seller is an advance payment in respect of that seller’s liability for normal tax for the year of assessment during which the property is disposed of by the non-resident seller.

Please note that if the non-resident seller does not submit an income tax return in respect of that year of assessment within 12 months after the end of that year of assessment, the payment of the amount under section 35A is a sufficient basis for an assessment in terms of section 95 of the Tax Administration Act.[2]

[1] No. 58 of 1962

[2] No. 28 of 2011

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied upon as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.  Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

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MET DIE LAASTE NUUSBRIEF VAN 2018

Nog ‘n jaar is verby en met die laaste nuusbrief van  2018 wil ons al ons kliënte bedank vir hulle ondersteuning en ‘n baie geseënde feestyd en voorspoedige 2019 toewens. Aan al ons personeel baie dankie vir die hardewerk en suksesvolle 2018. Mag elkeen van julle die feestyd en ruskans geniet en kom veilig terug.

Hierdie artikel is ʼn algemene inligtingsblad en moet nie as professionele advies beskou word nie. Geen verantwoordelikheid word aanvaar vir enige foute, verlies of skade wat ondervind word as gevolg  van die gebruik van enige inligting vervat in hierdie artikel nie. Kontak altyd ʼn finansiële raadgewer vir spesifieke en gedetailleerde advies. (E&OE)

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S129 NOTICE TO THE CONSUMER AND “DELIVERY”

There are many reasons why a consumer may default in his payments to a credit provider. Notwithstanding these reasons, the credit provider must follow certain procedures to enforce the agreement.

The first step, is for the credit provider to deliver to the consumer a written notice in terms of Section 129(1)(a) of the National Credit Act 34 of 2005 (“NCA”), notifying the consumer of the default and proposals as to what the consumer may do to resolve any disputes that he/she may have with the agreement or to work out a plan for the payments due under the agreement to be brought up to date. The consumer has ten business days to respond to the credit provider once he/she has received the letter. It must be noted though, that the consumer is under no obligation to respond to the notice in terms of Section 129(1)(a) (“the S129 notice”).

The consumer must be in default with his/her payment for at least twenty business days in terms of S130(1)(a) of the NCA, before the credit provider can deliver the S129 notice to the consumer.

The consumer must further be aware that the credit provider is legally bound to deliver the notice in terms of the S129 notice to the address of the consumer that is cited on the credit agreement – the address that the consumer chose when he/she signed the agreement.

The S129 notice, in terms of the Act, must be delivered to the consumer via registered post. The word “delivered” has been interpreted by the courts to give clarity, viz, the notice is to be dispatched to the correct post office for the address chosen by the consumer, when the credit agreement was signed, or to an adult at the location designated by the consumer, when the credit agreement was signed. Should the credit provider follow one of the above methods for delivery of the S129 notice, but the consumer failed to receive it by not collecting the notice from the post office, it would not be the fault of the credit provider and it would be deemed that the credit provider followed the “letter of the law” and would thus be within its rights to proceed with the issuing and serving of the summons.

Thus, it is not a defence for the consumer to raise that the notice was not delivered to him/her, as was explained by the Constitutional Court in the case of Kubyana v Standard Bank of South Africa Ltd, after revisiting the majority decision held by the Constitutional Court in the case of Sebola and Another v Standard Bank of South Africa Ltd and Another.

It falls upon the shoulders of the consumer to inform the credit provider, in writing, by hand or electronic mail, of any changes to his/her designated address in respect of receiving notices which defer from the credit agreement, to enable the credit provider to change the consumer’s records. Should the consumer not inform the credit provider of the new details, the credit provider will be bound to use the address as per the credit agreement and the consequence of this, is that the consumer will not receive the S129 notice, and when the ten business days have expired for the consumer to timeously give  the credit provider his intentions of how he/she wishes to deal with the default payments, the credit provider will be within its rights to proceed with the issuing and serving of the summons, incurring legal costs for the account of the consumer.

This was held in the court case of Robertson v Firstrand Bank Ltd t/a Wesbank.

Reference List:

  • National Credit Act 34 of 2005 read together with Amendment 19 of 2014
  • Kubyana v Standard Bank of South Africa Ltd (2014) ZACC
  • Sebola v Standard Bank of South Africa Ltd 2012(5) SA 142 (CC)
  • Robertson v Firstrand Bank t/a Wesbank (2015) ZAECGHC 7

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied upon as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.  Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

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KORPORATIEWE BEHEER – FINANSIËLE JAAREINDE

Die finansiële jaar van ’n maatskappy staan bekend as die rekenkundige periode. Ingevolge artikel 27 van die Maatskappywet No. 71 van 2008 (“die Wet”), het elke maatskappy wat geregistreer is ingevolge die Wet ’n finansiële jaareinde. Hierdie datum word vervat op die Kennisgewing van Inkorporasie-dokument van ’n betrokke maatskappy.

Die eerste finansiële jaareinde van ’n maatskappy begin op die datum waarop die maatskappy geregistreer is. Hierdie laasgenoemde datum verskyn op die registrasie dokumentasie van die maatskappy. Die finansiële jaareinde van die maatskappy sal dan eindig op die datum soos wat dit verskyn op die Kennisgewing van Inkorporasie-dokument van die maatskappy.

Die opeenvolgende finansiële jaar van ’n maatskappy begin op die datum direk na die voorafgaande finansiële jaar geëindig het, en sal dan weer eindig op die datum soos vervat in die Kennisgewing van inkorporasie-dokument van die maatskappy, behalwe as die maatskappy se finansiële jaareinde verander word deur ’n besluit van die direksie gedurende die betrokke finansiële jaar.

Die direksie van ’n maatskappy mag die finansiële jaar van ’n maatskappy enige tyd wysig deur ’n aansoek van wysiging in te dien by die Companies and Intellectual Property Commission (“CIPC”) deur die indiening van ’n CoR 25-vorm wat geteken is deur een van die direkteure van die maatskappy asook ’n ondersteunde resolusie wat geteken is deur al die direkteure van die betrokke maatskappy.

Die vereistes vir die wysiging van ’n finansiële jaareinde soos uiteengesit is in die Wet is as volg:

  1. ’n finansiële jaareinde mag slegs een keer in ’n betrokke finansiële jaar gewysig word;
  2. die nuut-verkose finansiële jaareinde moet ’n datum wees wat later is as die datum waarop die wysiging ingedien word by die CIPC; en
  3. die nuwe finansiële jaareinde mag nie daartoe aanleiding gee dat die nuwe finansiële jaar langer as 15 maande sal wees ná die voorafgaande finansiële jaar geëindig het nie.

As die finansiële jaar van ’n maatskappy eindig op ’n Saterdag of ’n Sondag van ’n betrokke jaar, dan sal daar geag word dat die finansiële jaar eindig op die volgende amptelike besigheidsdag.

Hierdie artikel is ʼn algemene inligtingsblad en moet nie as professionele advies beskou word nie. Geen verantwoordelikheid word aanvaar vir enige foute, verlies of skade wat ondervind word as gevolg  van die gebruik van enige inligting vervat in hierdie artikel nie. Kontak altyd ʼn finansiële raadgewer vir spesifieke en gedetailleerde advies. (E&OE)

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MANAGEMENT’S RESPONSIBILITY

Throughout the audit of a set of financial statements, the phrase “management/director’s responsibility” appears. It is included in the engagement letter, the financial statements and the auditor’s report.  But what does it mean?

Management is responsible for the management of the business, for implementing and monitoring of internal controls in the business, and in terms of the Companies Act (“the Act”), for maintaining adequate accounting records and the content and integrity of the financial statements.  These financial statements must be issued annually to reflect the results thereof.

These financial statements are used by various users (shareholders, directors, banks, SARS, etc.) to make certain decisions (buying and selling of shares, valuations, credit terms, etc.), and therefore need to be a true representation of the business.  It is therefore critical that all transactions are valid, are recorded accurately and completely in the correct financial year, are classified correctly, and that all assets and liabilities that exist are recorded at the true cost/value thereof.

In terms of the Act, financial statements are to be prepared using either International Financial Reporting Standards (“IFRS”) or IFRS for Small to Medium-sized Entities (“IFRS for SME’s”).  Luckily management is not responsible to be experts in the above-mentioned standards, as the Act does allow for management to delegate the task of preparing the financial statements to someone with the knowledge and skill set to be able to perform this task.  The Act does, however, not allow management to delegate the responsibilities that go along with it too, so they need to ensure that when they do delegate the task, that it is to a responsible person and that they review the financial statements before approving it.

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied upon as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.  Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

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Verskillende rentekoerse in belasting

Die Inkomstebelastingwet[1] bevat definisies vir verskillende rentekoerse. Hierdie rentekoerse dien as die basis vir renteberekeninge in inkomstebelasting in verskillende omstandighede en kan breedweg in drie hoofareas gekategoriseer word. Kennis van die verskil tussen hierdie onderskeie tipes rentekoerse kan ’n wesenlike impak hê op die bedrag rente wat deur belastingbetalers verskuldig of ontvangbaar is, asook die wyse waarop hulle transaksies struktureer, beïnvloed.

Wat is die verskillende tipes rentekoerse en wanneer is hulle van toepassing? SAID onderskei tans tussen twee “voorgeskrewe tariewe” en ’n sogenaamde “amptelike rentekoers”. Die voorgeskrewe tariewe is administratief van aard en van toepassing op belastingskulde, terwyl die amptelike rentekoers meer substantief van aard is en die basislyn bepaal waarteen die billikheid van rentekoerse op transaksies gemeet word.

  • Eerste voorgeskrewe koers: Hierdie is die rentekoers wat van toepassing is op enige belastingskuld deur belastingbetalers aan SAID betaalbaar, of belastingterugbetalings deur SAID aan belastingbetalers verskuldig op grond van suksesvolle appèlle en sekere vertraagde terugbetalings. Die koers word bepaal deur ’n kennisgewing in die Staatskoerant ingevolge die Wet op Openbare Finansiële Bestuur[2]. Sedert 1 Julie 2018, staan ​​hierdie koers op 10% (die hoogste was 19% in 1999!).
  • Tweede voorgeskrewe koers: Hierdie koers is van toepassing op die oorbetaling van voorlopige belasting en is gekoppel aan die eerste voorgeskrewe koers. Ongelukkig is hierdie koers wat slegs in belastingbetalers se guns is, 4 persentasiepunte onder die eerste voorgeskrewe koers, dus tans 6%.
  • Amptelike rentekoers: Die amptelike koers vir Rand-gedenomineerde skuld is gekoppel aan die terugkoopkoers plus 100 basispunte. Die amptelike koers word aangepas aan die begin van die maand wat volg op die maand waarin die Suid-Afrikaanse Reserwebank die terugkoopkoers verander (tans 7,5% sedert 1 April 2018).

Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat die voorgeskrewe koers tans nog deur die Wet gereguleer word. Daar word al lank voorgestel dat dit gereguleer word ingevolge die Wet op Belastingadministrasie. Die relevante bepalings is reeds in die Wet op Belastingadministrasie vervat, maar die effektiewe datum moet nog bepaal word. Dit lyk egter nie asof dit, ten minste uit ’n waardeperspektief, enige wesenlike impak sal hê nie.

“Rentekoers” in inkomstebelasting kan meer as een betekenis aanneem, afhangende van die spesifieke omstandighede. Dit is dus van kritieke belang dat belastingbetalers eerstens bewus is van watter wetgewing op enige tydstip van toepassing is en tweedens watter tipe rentekoers in hul spesifieke omstandighede van toepassing is.

[1] No 58 van 1962

[2] No 1 van 1999

Hierdie artikel is ʼn algemene inligtingsblad en moet nie as professionele advies beskou word nie. Geen verantwoordelikheid word aanvaar vir enige foute, verlies of skade wat ondervind word as gevolg  van die gebruik van enige inligting vervat in hierdie artikel nie. Kontak altyd ʼn finansiële raadgewer vir spesifieke en gedetailleerde advies. (E&OE)

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SAID rente op voorlopige belasting

Soos met verskeie ander saketransaksies, trek belasting in sy verskillende vorme ook rente aan, óf betaalbaar deur die belastingbetaler aan die SAID, óf aan die belastingbetaler verskuldig deur die SAID. Benewens om te weet watter van die verskillende SAID-rentekoerse van toepassing is (wat dikwels op sigself ’n uitdaging is), word dit toenemend belangrik om te weet in watter omstandighede rente van toepassing is, asook die relevante inkomstebelastinghantering van daardie rente. Hierdie artikel ondersoek een só ’n scenario: voorlopige belasting.

Oorbetaling van voorlopige belasting

Indien ’n belastingbetaler enige belastingkrediet het (die bedrag waarmee die belasting wat reeds betaal is die berekende belastingaanspreeklikheid oorskry) en daardie krediet R10 000 te bowe gaan, of die belastingbetaler ’n belastingkrediet het en die belasbare inkomste ’n bepaalde bedrag oorskry (R50 000 vir individue en trusts en R20 000 vir maatskappye), verdien die belastingbetaler rente teen die voorgeskrewe koers, naamlik 6% (vergeleke met die 10% wanneer rente aan die SAID betaalbaar is. (Kyk meer besonderhede hieronder).

Daaropvolgende inkomstebelastinghantering

Rente verdien van die SAID sal ingesluit word in die bruto inkomste van ’n belastingbetaler en is dus ten volle belasbaar (onderworpe aan enige jaarlikse rentevrystellings vir natuurlike persone). Alhoewel inkomstebelasting oor die algemeen volgens die beginsels van ontvangs en toevalling werk, bepaal artikel 7E van die Wet spesifiek dat enige rente wat deur die SAID aan ’n belastingbetaler verskuldig is, slegs as toegeval geag sal word op die datum waarop dit betaal is aan (ontvang word deur) ’n belastingbetaler. Alhoewel dit minder wesenlik vir individue is, kan dit lei tot verskille in hantering vir maatskappye en moontlik aanleiding gee tot uitgestelde belasting.

Onderbetaling van voorlopige belasting

As ’n belastingbetaler se normale belastingverpligting enige belastingkrediet oorskry en die belasbare inkomste ’n bepaalde bedrag oorskry (R50 000 vir individue en trusts en R20 000 vir maatskappye), sal rente deur die SAID teen die voorgeskrewe koers gehef word – tans 10%. Rente is ook betaalbaar teen die voorgeskrewe koers van 10% op laat betalings ten opsigte van eerste, tweede en derde voorlopige belastingperiodes.

Daaropvolgende inkomstebelastinghantering

Artikel 23(d) verbied die aftrekking van belasbare inkomste van enige rente betaal kragtens enige wet wat deur die SAID geadministreer word. Daarom sal enige rente wat aan die SAID betaal word, nie aftrekbaar wees vir inkomstebelasting nie. Vermoedelik is dit omdat hierdie rente nie beskou sal word as verkry in die produksie van inkomste of bestee vir die doeleindes van ’n bedryf nie.

Gegewe die wyd-gepubliseerde vertragings van terugbetalings vir verskillende soorte belasting, behoort belastingbetalers hulle rekeningstate van die SAID noukeurig na te gaan om te verseker dat die rente waarop hulle geregtig is ingevolge die verskillende belastingwette, aan hulle betaal is. Belastingbetalers behoort ook deeglik kennis te neem van die sperdatums vir voorlopige belastingbetalings om te verseker dat rente nie op laat betalings of enige onderbetalings aangegaan word nie.

Hierdie artikel is ʼn algemene inligtingsblad en moet nie as professionele advies beskou word nie. Geen verantwoordelikheid word aanvaar vir enige foute, verlies of skade wat ondervind word as gevolg  van die gebruik van enige inligting vervat in hierdie artikel nie. Kontak altyd ʼn finansiële raadgewer vir spesifieke en gedetailleerde advies. (E&OE)

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Additional changes to income tax returns for trusts

The South African Revenue Service (“SARS”) implemented several changes to the income tax returns for trusts (the ITR12T) on 17 September 2018. These changes are in addition to the changes already made on 26 February 2018. The September 2018 changes apply in respect of the year of assessment ending on 28 February 2018. Taxpayers that already saved or submitted the relevant 2018 ITR12T prior to the implementation of the latest changes, will not be presented with any of the new fields for completion.

Similar to the February 2018 changes, these additional changes form part of SARS’ ongoing efforts to promote efficiency and compliance.

Three new fields will be pre-populated on the ITR12T. The first is the “Trust Type”. Validation questions will be presented for a response if the Trust Type is Special Trust Type A or B. The Trust Type may change based on the answers provided.

The second and third fields relate to income from local farming operations (IT48) and income from local partnership farming operations (IT48V). These fields will now include auto-calculations and cater for negative currency to be captured.

Where applicable, trustees will now also be able to select one or both of the following options: “vested” and “discretionary”.

The ITR12T wizard has also been updated to include a question pertaining to imputed income from controlled foreign companies (“CFC”). If this question is answered yes, the ITR12T will display a new container to be completed. Please note that trusts, together with any connected person in relation to the trust, that holds at least 10% of the participation rights in a CFC, will also be required to submit a completed IT10B form (or IT10A form for years prior to 2012).

More fields have been added to the ITR12T with regards to the reduction of debts (section 19 of the Income Tax Act[1]), cash contributions to a rehabilitation trust fund (section 37A of the Income Tax Act) and amounts in respect of certain (tainted) intellectual property (section 23I of the Income Tax Act).

Furthermore, SARS indicated that the following documents should be submitted with the ITR12T (as a minimum) and include financial statements and/or administration accounts, all certificates and documents relating to income and deductions, proof of any tax credits claimed, particulars of assets and liabilities, as well as details of persons or beneficiaries to whom income, capital and/or assets were distributed or vested.

The take away is that trusts should carefully consider these new requirements in order to ensure that the relevant ITR12T is completed correctly. For more information on these new fields, an example of the new ITR12T form is available on SARS’ website for consideration.

[1] No. 58 of 1962

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied upon as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.  Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

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Deduction for photovoltaic solar energy plants

Section 12B(1) and (2) of the Income Tax Act[1] provides for a 50/30/20 income tax deduction in respect of certain machinery or plant owned by the taxpayer and which was or is brought into use for the first time by that taxpayer, for the purpose of his or her trade to be used by that taxpayer in the generation of electricity from, amongst others, photovoltaic solar energy (both for energy of more than 1 megawatt and energy not exceeding 1 megawatt) or concentrated solar energy. The tax deduction also applies to any improvements to the qualifying plant or machinery which is not repairs.

In cases of plant and machinery used in the generation of electricity from photovoltaic solar energy in respect of energy less than 1 megawatt, the taxpayer may write off 100% of the costs of such plant or machinery in the year brought into use.[2]

The cost of any asset for purposes of section 12B also includes the direct cost of installation or the erection thereof.[3]

In a recent binding private ruling (BPR 311) the applicant proposed to install solar power systems at each of the sites it rented to reduce electricity costs. As each system will only be supplemented and not replace the electricity provided by the main grid, it was proposed to generate less than 1 megawatt of electricity.

The taxpayer will purchase the photovoltaic solar panels, appoint and pay independent contracts to perform the installation planning, procure and purchase all other relevant equipment and install the systems at the relevant sites. These systems at each site comprised of the panels, AC inverters, DC combiner boxes, racking, cables and wiring.

In terms of the ruling, the taxpayer was entitled to claim the costs in respect of all the components of each system in terms of sections 12B(1) and (2). As each system will generate less than 1 megawatt of electricity, 100% of these costs were deductible in the year brought into use. No deduction was, however, claimed in respect of the costs of distribution boxes as it did not form part of the photovoltaic solar energy system.

It was furthermore proposed that the taxpayer would incur certain related expenditure as part of the cost of the installation, including the installation planning costs, panel delivery costs and installation safety officer costs. SARS, in this regard, ruled that these costs all formed part of the direct costs of installation and erection of the systems and were therefore deductible in terms of section 12B(3).

Taxpayers installing solar energy systems should therefore carefully consider the tax deductions in terms of section 12B to ensure that all relevant costs are claimed for income tax purposes.

[1] No. 58 of 1962

[2] See section 12B(2)(b)

[3] Section 12B(3)

This article is a general information sheet and should not be used or relied upon as professional advice. No liability can be accepted for any errors or omissions nor for any loss or damage arising from reliance upon any information herein. Always contact your financial adviser for specific and detailed advice.  Errors and omissions excepted (E&OE)

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